THE MUSEUM COMPLEX OF ADAMCLISI

Among the important monuments which certify the beginnings of the historical continuity of the Romanian people in the Danubian-Pontic territory, a special interest and a great value presents the concentration of monuments of material culture existing in the region of Adamclisi.

On the national road Constantza-Ostrov-Calarasi-Bucharest, before entering the village Adamclisi, at km 62, a paved ramification 1.5 km long leads the traveler to a plateau situated on the Monument hill. Here, in a Dobrudja specific landscape, there is a famous triumphal monument Tropaeum Traiani, built by Romans in order to commemorate the victories against the Dacian coalition in 101-102 A.D.

In the center of the village Adamclisi there is the museum Tropaeum Traiani, inaugurated in 1977 on the occasion of the celebration of a hundred years of the state Independence of Romania. The modern building shelters and presents the original fragments of the monument and the archaeological evidence of the multimillenary mankind existence on the South territory of Dobrudja.

Finally, at about 600 m from the village entrance, going to Ostrov, on a plateau which borders on the East the Urluia valley, there can be seen the impressive ruins of the city Tropaeum Traiani.

The monument, the museum and the city represent one of the most important archaeological museum complex. In the following lines we are going to do a useful duty to present them in the above order, which represents in the same time a suggestion for a vising itinerary.

 

THE MONUMENT

In its original form the monument would have been composed of a huge cylindrical structure, superposed by a coned roof made of stone slates laid like scales and on the roof there were two hexagonal bases having decreasing size: they served as a socle for a large statue - the well -known Tropaeum - the symbol of the Roman victories won at the borders of the empire.

1. The stairway

At the basement, all around, there are nine rows of stairs-seven on the surface and two burried because of the monument settling during the centuries-carved in huge stone blocks. There is a promenade place of about two metres width upon the superior step.

2. The wallafacing

Seeing from above, from the promenade place, level, there is a massive cylinder - the stereobat - first with six rows of polished stone coated slabs making the so-called paramentum - completely undecorated. According to recent calcule the parament, in its whole was made of 510 blocks of stone, all equal in size, being 1.14 m long, 0.56 m wide and 0.70 thick. The precise drafting along the edges of each block, the grooves and fact that some pieces from the parament have been found in situ and they are similar as material and shape with those found far away have led us the idea of oneness of the material and the construction of this part of the monument in a single stage.

Finally all the pieces that compose the parament are secured horizontally by metal clamps.

3. The lower frieze

Above the first three rows of blocks at the lower part of the parament unfurled circular a sculptural complex made of three rows of superposed ornamental elements: the lower frieze, a succession of metopes framed by pillasters and the upper frieze. The both friezes have been initially made of 26 pieces, each 1.17m long. The lower frieze is decorated with achantus leaves in volutes closing in the middle o wolf head. Above and under the achantus volutes there are two bandes made of some smaller proeminences - ove - and others prolonged having a lenticule shape, that alternates regularly. Between the upper bande and volutes there are little birds on some blocks of the lower frieze.

4. The metopes

The metopes set a well in a circular arrangement are massive rectangular stone slabs (Sarmatian calcar) having their exterior faces covered with important scenes from the Roman campaigns in which emperor Traian fought against Dacians and their allies.

In spite of their unskillful execution, the metopes are highly important for the reconstruction of our past, being a real picture on stone of the campaigns at the beginning of our era.

It is right that we don't have anymore the total number of 54 of the original metopes, but using some written reference of the scholars in the last century and some remains of the metopes, sometimes off less importance, we are able to establish the content of the lost pieces. Thus, three of them have been interpreted by Wutzer in 1860, and a fragment of the metope XXX was lost after 1896, that means after Grigore Tocilescu had already described it. Finally, another one, XXXIV can be found today among the exponates of the Archaeological Museum in Istanbul, where it had been brought in the middle of the 19th century A.D.

Their average size: 1.58 m high and 1.16 m wide.

What do the sculptures show ? Roman mounted soldiers in full armor and carrying speares-all suggesting a Roman cavalry charge. Some other metopes show aspects from the fights between Romans and Geto-Dacians, the formers protected by helmets and coats of mail, while the latters rarely carrying military equipment and carts. The posture and clothing of their allies show clearly that these warriors represented people who were fighting embittered to their freedom.

On some of the metopes there have been shown enchained prisoners flanked by Roman soldiers-winners; officers, dignitaries and standard and the winds bearers, and on some emperor Traian himself.

Some metopes showing the richness of the province between Danube and the Black Sea (sheep flocks) are very valuable.

The disposal of the metopes on the Triumphal Monument followed some recent proposals concerning their epic significance. Thus, beginning from North, the first 27 metopes show the history of the first battle in the South part of Dobrudja and illustrated by three scenes: 1. ''The attack and the cavalry fight''. 2. ''The battle around the carts''. 3. ''The prostration of the civil population and the prisoners in front of the emperor''. The second series of the metopes, grouped in three scenes as well illustrates another deciding moment of the fight: 4. '' The march to the great battle''. 5. ''The great battle'' which took place on the plateau in Adamclisi. 6. ''The acclamation, Traian's inspection of the victorious Roman troops.

In each scene the main metope is that representing the emperor Traian, who directly participated in the leading of the military operations in Moesia Inferior. The figures and the scenes represented on the reliefs seem clumsy that convinces us that the stone masons weren't chosen with utmost care, maybe they had been recruted even from the soldiers.

But the minor aspect of the labor at the metopes doesn't affect the armony of the construction and this situation makes us belive that here not concern for refined art determined the work, but mainly the concern for symbolic aspects. Otherwise, looking at the monument build at the Lower Danube, extremity of the empire, the natives and the migrators less informed about Rome's refined art understood good enough the scenes significance - the better as they were made in a more rudimentary manner. we thus underline the hard to deny remark that the Adamclisi relief were Roman provincial art made for the natives at the Lower Danube to whom they adressed with the aim of intimidation and domination.

5. The pilasters

The 54 metopes are flanked by as many pilasters making up adequate frames for every of them. The pilasters are made either vertically cannelated or with ivy tendrils, these two designs alternating at regular intervals. The upper part of the pilasters in a capitel shape is identical for both types.

6. The upper frieze

The upper frieze having as ornament a spiral shaped as a double interwaved rope enclosing palmetto leaves completes the circular framing above the 54 metopes. As at the lower frieze there is here alternating ove and lenticuli belts.

7. The cornice

Above the upper frieze there is, following the three rows of the parament blocks a new sculpture element - the cornice made of stone blocks which presents the same twisted rope motif.

8. The figured attic

On the upper circumference of the cylinder - the stereobat - above the cornice there were two types of pieces alternating: crenels and the parapet block or using a specific archaeological term the figured attic.

The crenels are rectangle blocks prolonged on the two long sides, by means of them there were coupled the corresponding pieces of the parapeted wall. We underline the fact that these crenels are of great interest: their surface is carved with human figures who represents a captive, his hands tied to a tree. The ethnographic researches have proved that the captive are dressed typical for the populations who used to live at the Lower Danube. Their different costumes and hairstyles examination led to the conclusion that the figures are Geto-Dacians, so Decebal's main allies who fought against the Roman troops in Moesia Inferior.

In establishing the ethnical origin of the captives carved on the crenels, the researchers examinated some already known elements comparing them with the Dacian types presented on Traian's Column in Rome. Here, as at Adamclisi too, the scenes present some easy to be recognized ethnographical elements mainly as concerning the Dacians: long tunics lateraly cut, tight and waved pants; on their heads they had bonets. As weapon - already the curved sword (daca).

The determination of the other types - Germanics, Sarmatians it is fulfilled today, the researchers have studied their costumes, weapons, as well.

The 27 crenels have the same height 1.56 m - and the basement wide an average of 1.80 m.

The parapeted wall is made also of rectangular stone blocks horizontally set and having a constant height of 0.91 m and the average length of 1.31 m.

They are 54 in number and they are decorated with geometrical figures in relief: circles, lozenges, rozettes.

9. The lions

Between two parapet blocks, among the crenels, above the cornice appeared a lion beautifully carved in stone whose muzzles served as for the rain water to trickle from the roof passing through a metal pipe through the parapet block.

10. The roof

The tronconic roof of the monument was built in a remarkable architecture. The more that 1.000 stone in a scale - like design slates laid in 19-20 superposed rows. The first row of slates set on stone bases began at a distance of about 1 m from behind the attic - that means exactly the breadth of a second promenade place, that time on the roof. The stone slates decreased in size as the roof come up the two superposed hexagonal bases.

11. The hexagonal base

The first base, the lower one is shorted and larger, the second one is higer and thinner; they made together a base adequate to the huge trophy with its high socle, the most important piece of the monument.

The sixth vertical edges of the lower hexagonal base are marked by six pilasters in the Corinthian style, cannelated and with stilized capitels. The surface of base were smooth. The two superposed hexagonal bases were separated by a cornice which made them look as distinct bodies. As at the lower base at the upper base the six edges are marked by the same type of pilasters and with the same decorations. More, in the North part was set a plaque a Latin inscription of which today there are preserved only some fragments and on the opposite side, another copy of the same inscription.

12. The inscription

The reconstitution of this votive inscription by Grigore Tocilescu was of great interest for dating the monument back to emperor Traian's time and for establishing its close association with the Daco-Roman epopey. The inscription reads :

TO MARS, THE GOD OF WAR, CAESAR THE EMPEROR, SON OF DIVINE NERVA, NERVA TRAIAN, THE AUGUSTUS, WHO DEFEATED THE GERMANICS, THE DACIANS, GREAT PRIEST, FOR THE 13TH TIME TRIBUNE OF THE PLEBEIANS, PROCLAMED EMPEROR BY THE ARMY FOR THE 6TH TIME, ELECTED CONSUL FOR THE 5TH TIME FATHER OF OUR HOME-LAND, AFTER DEFEATING THE DACIANS AND THE SARMATIANS ARMIES, an so on...

13. The frieze with weapons

Above the pilasters of the hexagonal base there was set all around a frieze with relief carvings representing breastplates and weapons : lances, spears, curved swords, bows. The frieze was overtopped by a cornice, above which there was the socle proper, set on a hexagonal axis.

14. The trophy

The trophy socle consists of five superposed tambours of about 4 m height, to whom there is added the Trophy of about 5 m height. This is dressed in the costume and the armor of a Roman soldier. The statue as whole imposing nature and intimated the idea of domination. The helmet was lost. To the right and left on the armor the image of Medusa appeared. Behind the breast plates there were speares, new lost, too. On the cuirass there were carved : a large acanthus flower, a galloping cavalry soldier, an eagle with outstretched wings and a shielded sword.

There were rich decoration lorica shaped on the hem of the coats: lower down of the socle there were represented the so-called cnemidae, closely related to the Roman practice of getting rid of evil spirits and evil doers.

15. The captives

Finally at the base of the trophy there were represented there captives, two sitting women and a standing man having his hands tight up behind. The whole statuary group symbolizes the Geto-Dacian submission, event commemorated by the triumphal monument.

The restoration of the monument

The reconstruction of the monument using the original pieces hasn't been possible because of the lack of data and the ignorance as concerning the original order of the metopes. Only the pieces taken separately are actually authentic, while their grouping on the monument can be only hypothetical and arbitrary, because at so many missing places and mainly because we don't know their precise correlation. Finally, the restoration with the original pieces would have fastened the destructive process of the figurated piece already heavily corroded. The access of the researches to study the pieces would have been stopped. In order to protect the ruin it had to be covered fact which couldn't be assured more aesthetically than reconstituing the old parament.

So the restoration has been made taking into account the authenticity and preserving both the part of the monument existing ''in situ'' - respective the nucleus with steps - and the most faithful reproduction of the figurated pieces. The steps were completed with stone taken like in ancient times from the Deleni quarry, at about 3 km distance, from the monument. On a very thin metal skeleton respecting the dimensions of the initial triumphal monument artificial simili were fitted into the metal frames respecting the measures of the parament stones, of the metopes with pilasters, of the cornices and of the figure attic, which moulded into patterns made with the original figurated pieces render with high fidelity, the whole external shape of the monument. Moreover, these can be substituted or changed whenever necessary, depending on the results of the researches, on the conclusions which will be reached in the future. Beside having the whole sight of the monument in its entire greatness - with all touristic, patriotic and educative implication, this solution offers the possibility of protection the monument nucleus - inside this cover there is a space where one can walk for research and chemical preservation of it in need.

This restitution work for the national and universal patrimony of the highest and the most authentic witness of the birth of the Romanian people was dedicated to the centenary of the state Independence of Romania.

THE CITY TROPAEUM TRAIANI

 In the South-West part of the village Adamclisi, at about 600 m distance from it or about 1,500 m from the triumphal monument, on a plateau situated in the Urluia valley, the landscape is completed with some stone, brick and concrete ruins which are sprinkled on a surface more than 100 ha. It is the great city which developed in Roman Dacia for five centuries, Tropaeum Traiani.

The Roman city was archaeologically studied by Grigore Tocilescu between 1892-1909. The diggings were rarely continued by George Murnu, Paul Nicorescu and other archeologists, being discovered only some monuments and an important number of inscriptions.

The researchers in the last years made by a group of archaeologists from Bucharest and Constantza enriched very much our knowledge regarding the evolution of this important city in the South of Dobrudja.

At the beginning of our century, Vasile Pirvan, in a work dedicated to the city Tropaeum Traiani wrote the following lines about the settlement of the city: "Traian builds in 109 A.D. after he has defeated the Dacians, at the crossroads of this way to North with that from Callatis to Durostorum, which went straight from East to West, a triumphal monument dedicated to Mars, The Revenger (The God of War).

The settlement at the crossroads was transformed by him in city and the new center of Roman civilization situated in the very core of the Dacian territory in the right of the Danube was called, after the triumphal monument, Tropaeum Traiani. This way I think the city Tropaeum was born in connection with the whole system of civilization of the Getian country between Haemus and the Danube, and not an auxiliary of the monument in neighborhood.(V.Pirvan, The city Tropaeum, BCMI IV, pag 2-3).

The native settlement which had existed before the Roman city was inhibited by veterans and Roman citizens-merchants, craftsmen, land-owners. In 116 A.D. the Roman community here was strongly consolidated, as the inscription on the socle of the statue of emperor Traian proves where the citizens of the city are mentioned with the name of Traianenses Tropaenses. The favorable geographical condition and the very advantageous position facilitated the rapid development of the Roman settlement transforming it even from the 2nd century A.D. in a flourishing city. Before the Costoboci attack in 170 A.D., the inscriptions during Marcus Aurelius time let us understand that the settlement was a municipium. The city was led by a senat - ordo decurionum - and there were also a lot of magistrates : duumviri, qinqennales, gestores, aediles, as well a number of priests of the official cult. The Costoboci attack, free Dacians from the North of the country, who come in 170 A.D. up to the Balkan Peninsula reach the city Tropaeum; on a funeral series of dedications to divinities of agriculture, Liber patter, Ceres and Zeus Ombrimos (rain bringing). The agriculture development means a greater number of village properties - village rusticae - as that of the Roman senator L. Aelius Marcianus from Urluia and probably those of Deleni, Pietreni, Zorile, Padureni.

The devastating attacks of the Carpo-Goths in the 2nd part of the 3rd century A.D. destroyed very much the city Tropaeum Traiani. At the beginning of the 4th century A.D. under the emperors Constantin the Great and Lucinius, the city of Tropaeum was rebuilt, as the inscription which commemorates this event says, dating from 316 A.D., discovered by Grigore Tocilescu at the East gate of the city. In translation the text reads : "Being defenders of the Roman security and liberty, our leaders Flavius Valerius Constantin and Lucianus Licinius, pious, happy and forever augustus, by whom virtue and wisdom people of foreign origin had been subjected in order to assure a lasting border, it was successfully built the city of Tropaeum, when the prefects of the pretorium were Petronius Annianus, a senator and Iulius Iulianus, acvestrus, the very faithful to the divine will of these (the emperors)."

Beside the inscription, above the East gate arcade, it was set a monolith tropaeum, 2.65 high, the emblem of the city, which remembers by its shape of the great trophy in the neighborhood.

1. The precint wall

The researches in the last years have rendered evident the fact that the precint foundation wall is older that the wall itself, existing a building phase before Constantin the Great, dating from the end of the 3rd century A.D. The precint wall during Constantin the Great time, which is still preserved today, follows the same irregular shape of the plateau having 2.60-2.70 m thick and about 1.200 m long. The wall has a nucleus of stone - and concrete - emplecton - covered on the both faces by parallepiped carved block, set in horizontal rows. Recent researches have proved that the wall was paved in its upper part with big rectangle bricks linked with mortar. Two U-shaped towers flanked the two main gates, East and West gates which marked the ends of the axial streets. A third secondary gate opens in the South and it is flanked by two massive quadrilateral bulwarks. At 15-20 m far the precint wall has U-shaped defending towers, the most consolidated being the West side. In its center there is a quadrilateral tower, the only of this kind, so-called pyrgos or frurion, citadel, almost 25 m long which walls with blocks are still preserved on a height of 5-6 m. On the wall from the city there are two niches which were used to set the wood stairs on the floors. The inner space is of 74 m and could be used as deposit or to shelter a small garrison in need. The South-West and North sides of the wall have also bulwarks, but more rarely. On the South - East side the defence was assured by the towers at the fortified water basin and the South tower of the East gate.

The city gates, especially the West one, assured the connection with the imperial road which passed through the Roman Dobrudja from South to North, through the center of the province, and met at Tropaeum the road which connected Durostorum with the Greek cities on the coast.

2. The West gate

It is 4.40 m wide and it was flanked by two big proeminent towers, the total wide beeing 10.40 m. The gate had a massive archway. At the South tower there had been discovered some ornamental pieces, too, monuments from 2nd - 3rd century .A.D. used again when the city was rebuilt in the 4th century A.D. Under the gate threshold there was a main canal of the rain waters, beeing vizible a hole covered by a rozette-shaped stone plate.

3. The East gate

It is 4 m. wide, beeing flanked by two massive towers. As at the West gate, the closing system was in leafs, set by an iron bar inside, their traces can be seen in pavement and door frame.

4. The South gate

The South gate is 4 m wide and had a proeminent thereshold, and to the interior steps where the citizens could walk. The recent restoration works have been done, among others, for the city gates and the precinct wall on the South-West side; thaw, the antiques vestiges are preserved and we have also the details about the sizes of the city in ancient times.

On the South-East side of the city, out of the precincts, we can find a dependency, probably a great basin for drinking water. The problem of water supply was very important at Tropaeum Traiani as we can see in some inscriptions de dedicated to Zeus Ombrinos, "rain bringing" or to Hera (Junona) "to the fulfilment of the promise to have found water". The discoveries around the Roman city have brought to light aqueducts made of ceramic pipes or built pipes; water was brought from the hills in the West part of Adamclisi village or from the South of the city, from where the aqueducts brought water so necessary, from distances of 8 and 5 km (today villages Sipotele and Zorile). Remains of aqueducts have been found in different places of the city, at the South gate, but mainly the tile pipe which passed through via principalis from East to West (integrated in the sewerage syste for rain waters).

After the flourishment in the 4th century A.D., the city Tropaeum Traiani would face an economical and cultural decline, as the whole province, too, due to very unfavorable conditions and exagerated fiscality, worsen by the repeated Huns attacks.

A last flourishment period was observed beginning with the end of the 5th century A.D. and up to the second half of the 6th century A.D. during the emperors Anastasius (491-518) and Iustinian's (527-562) time, when city becomes an important civil and religious center. The city development is well-known both due to the public or religious buildings discovered in older or more recent archaeological researches. The actual phase of the archeological diggings let us know city elements very representative for the late Roman cities. Among them we mention:

5. Via principalis

The main street going East-West which connected the two important city gates was of about 300 m long and 14 m wide. The street was paved with massive stone slates. The carriage roads, of 7 m breadth was flanked on both sides by portice - portici viales- of 3.50 m wide each and destined for walk. There was a canal through the middle of the street in rectangle section(1.40 m depth and 0.85 m wide) which walls were built of stone and brick linked with mortar and strengthened, every 3 metres with by monolite stone sleepers. The canal was used to sewerage rain waters and in the same time it sheltered the tile pipe for drinking water as we said before.

As a consequence of the church development, Tropaeum Traiani became bishopric where imposing Christian churches were built of stones, bricks and marble. The diggings made by Gr. Tocilescu, C. Murnu, Gustav v. Kube brought to light five Christian churches and a cemetery one.

6. The cemetery basilicas

The first cemetery at Tropaeum which raises on the plateau in the North part of the city, was discovered and published for the first time by Grigore Tocilescu, beeing composed by one nave and one abside set semicircular. V. Pirvan dated it during Constantin the Great. M. Ciurea's opinion, who considered that the basilica is pendinte by a village in the territory of the city Tropaeum has no reasons. Resuming the researches demonstrated that the basilica is much more complex: there have been discovered three naves, the atrium and a series of auxiliaries fronte East. We consider that there are two different phases as concerning the basilica using: the first phase, when basilica was a cemetery one and the second, when it is transformed in a parish church.

Recently, in the same antiques city, out of the walls, too, not fat from the West gate, it was identified another basilica. As a type it can be considered both to the cemetery type, and to the cemetery type, and to the parish type, too. This basilica functioned at the beginning (the second half of the 4th century A.D.) as a cemetery church, as the first phase demonstrates it, beeing built by an abside and a single nave.

In the second half of the 4th century A.D. there were added to the church, because of liturgical necessities, two more rooms (prothesis and disconion) at the North and the South of the abside, two naves and a nartex. At the end of the 5th century or at time the beginning of the next one, basilica extended, becoming with transept.

So, the transforming of the cemetery churches in parish churches developed because the number of the Christian communities grew, the "intra muros" basilica becoming as a consequence insuficient.

7. "The marble basilica"

Imediately at he entrance in the city, on the West gate, in the North of via principalis, before the great tower rectangle tower - frurion- of the precinct wall, there is the "marble basilica", named like this because of the numerous marble architectonic elements which ornamented it : columns ,little columns, cancelia slates, with different ornaments. The basilica is 25.50 m long without atrium ; the main nave is separated from the two side naves by two rows of columns. According to the Hellenistic type, we can distinguish from West to East : the nartex - immediately after atrium - the naos with the three naves and the altar presbytherium with a higher level. The basilica has three known entrances in the West. In the center of the atrium the well - philae - with the remains of a canal. But the most important element of this place is the baptysterium built in the South, near the atrium. It is a small building with three rooms united by a narrow corridor, the purpose of the building beeing related to the baptization.

Another room in the North-West of the building is considered to be the bishop house, and those which are added to the adside in the East formed a pastophorium.

The "marble basilica", set up, initialy in the middle of the 4th century A.D., represents the third phase of its reconstruction, that after 530 A.D., and mainly during Iustinian's time. It is the bishopric church of the city Tropaeum - cathedrala - the evident proof beeing the baptysterium built probably in the finial part of its existence. At the end of the 6th century A.D. the church is destroyed by the Avars and Slaves attacks and the fourth phase of reparations remained unfinished.

8. The basilica reservoir

Coming back to the via principalis, on the East side and parallel to the street, on the South there is the basilica reservoir, named so because it was built on the foundations of an water reservoir, which massive brick and stone walls linked with hydrofob mortar are to be seen in the diggings today. The diggings in 1976 have showed that the initially basin was paved with bricks. After it was uncovered at date we don't knew and for unclear reasons, maybe when it was built the great fortified basin in the South-West part of the city, the basilica walls were implanted in the interior on the old "floor". As we can see there are two phases; an older one, which is illustrated by a wall fragment which appears on the North long side and which matches perfectly with a second fragment, on the West, with an auxiliary pavement made of stone size slabs. The second phase is given by the continuous foundations of a central nave from a basilica named reservoir by the researches. The nave sizes, narrower than the reservoir are 19.70/6.80 m. The perimeter walls of the side naves have not been researched yet or have been uncovered later on. We agree more the first hypothesis. On the East side it has an abside whose polygon aspect in interior is given by the aesthetic side of the reservoir, the abside overtopped it and it compelled the builders of the church to take into account in substructure its right side. The walking level in the church is given by that at the entrance on the narrower stairs which goes down to the crypt and the outside one, from West , beyond the nartex place, now lost, more exactly by the pavement which could be attributed to an atrium. Anyway, the special aspect of the church is due not only to the circumstances that it has its foundations on an water reservoir, but also to the fragments of columns, little columns, ciborium capitels - baldaquin - and some monuments discovered around it. This imposing building could be but the work of some Roman builders in the 5th century A.D.

9. The basilica forensis

In the center of the city - forum - there has been discovered in the 19th century one of the most imposing building, basilica forensis from the 4th century A.D., having a laic character, set on the South-West corner formed by the main street with via forensis which goes from here to the South gate.

Basilica was a large size room 56 x 24 m, built in the 3th century A.D. and rebuilt during Constantin the Great and Lucinius. It was used for administrative, economic and law needs. Its interior was separated in three naves by two long columns rows. Later on, on its North side, it was built a church from a nave, maybe a chapel, built of stones linked with soil. The chapel has an abside on it South side. On the long East side of the old basilica a portic with pilasters is added, and the pilasters are covered with slabs, and on the South and there had been executed three rooms corresponding to the three naves.

The addition of the Christian chapel to the great laic old building in the 5th century A.D. can be explained by the amplification of the church service motivated by the public meetings of the city in the 5th - 7th century A.D.

10. The basilica with transept

The basilica with transept or shaped basilica occupies the South-East angle of the two streets mentioned before. It is also parallel with via principalis. It is the largest of the all the five churches at Tropaeum, of 33.80 m long 10.70 wide. The abside has an opening of 9.60 m and is closed by some rooms. A constant particularity is that comparing to the other basilicas known until now in Scythia Minor, the transept one has an extra abside, but a smaller one, included in the old one. The crypt had interior stairs on the South side, too. The underground cavity has on the South side the niche of the reliquarium, and on the North side a bigger niche, maybe for offerings.

In the case of this basilica we also underline another particularity, that the baptyserium is made of three auxiliary rooms which form a row on the long side in North, from transept to west. So we have in Civitas Tropaensium two service buildings with baptyserium. This situation has born two hypothesis. This first, that the two basilicas couldn't function but for Christian communities having two different dogmas, one Orthodox and the other one maybe unorthodox ariane. The second hypothesis supposes that the marble basilica has its baptyserium from the 6th century A.D. and the transept basilica is one century older, so they functioned successively.

11. The basilica A.(the simple basilica)

The 6th basilica, situated on the North side of the main street opposite the transept basilica, is included in the city Tropaeum Traiani. It was called "A" because is situated in the first city area conventionally separated by the researchers. It has a simple rectangular shape having its sides of 21.30 x 11.70 m and it is also separated in three naves. The altar place is large and has axly, in the sides naves, rooms of the same size.

The recent archeological campaigns have brought into light a large crypt with a West entrance; its sizes are 2.75 x 2.30 m. The stairs going to the crypt were woodmade so they are lost now. It was framed by pastered up walls which delimitate a hall of 1.15 m.

The crypt walls are plastered up in interior with stucco and it is to be mentioned the fact that time immediately after digging it could be seen on the East side an inscription written with bluish paint, which late on taking contact with air became illizible. It is possible that the inscription had a Bible quotation. Finally, the older diggings led to the completing the basilica plan with a dependency building situated in the North-East corner, near the abside and with another three rooms along the South side which could be diaconion. On the West side, recent researches have demonstrated the existence of an atrium whose sewerage canal has been discovered and would be related to a philae. It is more possible to date the building in the 5th century A.D., the nartex beeing a plausible evidence.

 

THE MUSEUM TROPAEUM TRAIANI

Conceived as a lapidarum which shelter the original figure pieces of the monument and in the same time to show the visitors, the modern building of the museum in the center of the Village Adamclisi include also numerous archaeological vestiges discovered in the city Tropaeum Traiani and all around.

Besides the metopes, the upper and the lower frizes, the crenels and the parapet block of the figured attic, the huge statue of the trophy and so on, there are also set and exhibited the remains discovered as a result of the archaeological researches made year by year in the city in the neighborhood on the discoveries occasionally done due to irrigation systems, buildings, or agricultural works in the area.

The archaeological exhibition at Adamclisi is based on two ideas. The first certifies the age of Geto-Dacians living in the South Dobrudja area, and, the second the continuity of the Romanian people existence in this geographical area, where the process of Romanization was very profound.

The first level

The oldest evidence concerning a human community existence in the area of settlement at Adamclisi are ceramical from the Neolithic culture Hamangia (about 4,200-3,700 B.C.) discovered on the plateau where Tropaeum Traiani would be built.

The windows at the beginning of the visiting itinerary include Geto-Dacian ceramics from the 5th - 3rd century B.C. discovered in the area of the settlements Adamclisi, Zorile, Ion Corvin and also in the getic necropolis (cemetery) at Bugeac. The great majority of these pots are urns where the burnt bones of the dead had been put. It is known the fact that the Geto-Dacians were incinerating people as a funeral rite. Beside these funerary urnes there are exhibited also ceramic ear cups, the well-known Dacian "catui" used in the house and also for some religious rites.

The connections the native people had with the Greek colonies at Pontus Euxinus are shown by The Greek amphoras from 3rd - 2nd century B.C. discovered in the Geto-Dacian area in the South of Dobrudja. The very advantageous position of the Geto-Dacians settlement in the area of village Adamclisi, situated along the one of the most important commercial roads which connected Callatis and the Danube, determined intense trade relations between Greeks and the native populations. A beautiful amphora of Cos - the 1st century B.C. discovered at Ion Corvin comes to strengthen the visitors image about the permanent connections which the populations in the South of Dobrudja had with the Pontus Euxinus coast.

The beginnings of the Roman life at Adamclisi are documented by a rich biographical material ; very interesting due to its importance is the inscription on the socle of the statue built for the emperor Traian by the citizens in the settlement - Traianenses Tropaeenses in 116 A.D.

Beside a beautiful archaeological fragment representing an architrave with bucranies dates in the 2nd-3rd century A.D. and discovered in the precinct wall of the city from the 4th century A.D., when it was used as a building material, the native presence is documented by the Geto-Dacian ceramic the end of the last millennium B.C. and the beginning of our era.

The intense economic life is also demonstrated by the Roman ceramic for common use or luxury, by the tools having different uses, by a great number of jewels discovered on the city territory or in the graves around. We notice among these exhibits : knives for viticulture, a spoon for pouring melted metal and a small anvil, evidence concerning the existence of some workshops at Tropaeum Traiani. Rings with gemma, different types of bronze fibulas, brackets, bells and keys are documents which certify the flourishing life of the citizens in the settlement at Tropaeum and in the villages around. A flourishing trade proved by the great number of coins is to be mentioned in the area.

Some basoreliefs direct visitors attention. On some of them discovered in the Roman camp at Capidava, on the Danube bank, is represented a tropaeum similar to that at Adamclisi. Maybe is a copy made in the 2nd century A.D. in the fortification built by Traian on the Danube limes.

On other basorelief Thanatos is represented, the deity of death taken from Romans by the citizens, on the plateau in the Urluia valley, too. The numerous capitels with imposta an intense building activity and citizens artistical taste in the 4th - 9th century A.D.

Aqueducts fragments present the importance Romans showed to water supply and transportation. An amphora from 5th - 6th century A.D. discovered at Sucidava, Roman camp set near Rasova, shows the connection the city at Tropaeum Traiani had with the Danube limes at that time.

The Romanian ceramic in the 8th - 9th century, discovered in the city and in the settlement around is the evidence of the native people existence and work in this area, in spite of the devastating migrations.

We notice two ceramics vessels discovered in a burial grave from 8th - 9th century A.D.; on the bottom of one of them there was imprinted a potter mark.

Follows the stone carved story of the terrible epopey which took part in 102 A.D. here, in Dobrudja. There are carefully set and numbered in supposed order of them 48 from the 58 original metopes.

Downstairs

After we see all the six images of the figurated belt the monument, follows the trophy huge statue and the remains of the statuary group at its basement, the Geto-Dacian women and the captive hands tight at his back.

Besides there are set the fragments of the votive inscription on the hexagonal basement the triumphal monument and remains from the wall of the altar-cenotaf where there have been written in stone the names of about 3,800 Roman soldiers fallen in at Adamclisi the battle.

A model reproduces the image of the altar-cenotaf as it was when it was built in the memory of those fallen on the battlefield. There are fragments of the socle of the trophy statue on there are carved medusa's face and the cnemides - the hem from the fight equipment of the trophy. There is also exhibited in the museum a support for scale and scale from the tronconic roof of the monument.

Besides there are presented funerary steals, dedications to deities from the 2nd - 3th century A.D. used again, some of them as material for building the patient wall in the 4th century A.D. and for some edifices in Civitas Tropaensium in the 4th - 6th century A.D. Among these inscriptions one of the great interest due to its importance is Dazius' funerary stella, the son of Comozous, killed in 170 A.D. during the Costoboci attack upon the city. So the process of the natives Romanization was in full development at less than 60 years from the first mention of the Roman settlement at Tropaeum.

Another important inscription is that of L. Fufidius Lucianus, killed in the same circumstances. The function of this important character in city's political and administration life is an evidence that the settlement had been already the rank of a municipium in that year 170 A.D.

Another inscription remember about the veterans of some Roman military unities which stayed on Dobrudja territory, how is for example the Fifth Legion Macedonia. Some epigraphic documents include names of the merchants who were coming from different provinces of the Empire: Syria, Palestine, Greece and so on. Some dedications in honor of same deities as Zeus, Ombrinos-rain bringing-Junona Regina Hera-Ceres remember new elements as concerning agriculture natives occupation in the rural area of the municipium in the 4th century A.D.

After the model of the triumphal monument in the 2nd century A.D. to the exit of the museum there is set a small trophy discovered in the last century by Grigore Tocilescu at the East gate of the city, and which will be the city emblem in the 4th century A.D.

On the blind wall in front of the museum, a huge mosaic presents a special artistical view, monuments and representations of the beginning of our ethnical birth in the Pontus Euxinus - Carpathian and Danube area.

The complex, as whole, the restored monument, the city with its fortifications and buildings and the modern museum represents an evidence of high patriotism and an invaluable feeling of unique in the world message, expression of our dignified integration on the way of human civilization setting up.